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中国教育:波澜壮阔四十年
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教育部党组书记、部长 陈宝生

  1978nian12yue,dangzhongyangzhaokaishiyijiesanzhongquanhui,lakailezhongguogaigekaifangdeshidaixumu。40nianlai,womendangtuanjiedailingquanguogezurenminpijingzhanji、diliqianxing,yinglailecongzhanqilai、fuqilaidaoqiangqilaideweidafeiyue,chuangzaolerenleishehuifazhanshishangjingtiandongdidefazhanqiji,huijiuleyifushiwuqianli、bolanzhuangkuodelishihuajuan。

  jiaoyushigaigekaifangdexianxingzhe、shouyizhe、zhulizhe。40nianqiandezhongguo,baifeidaixing。dengxiaopingtongzhiyilishideyanguangyichuidingyin,“kaokongjiangbunengshixianxiandaihua,bixuyouzhishi,yourencai”。huifugaokaodianranyiwanqingshaonianxuexireqing,kejiaoxingguozhubuqueliweidangheguojiadefazhanzhanlve,zunzhongzhishi、zunzhongrencaichengweishidaiheguojiadezuiqiangyin,zhongguojiaoyujinrukuaisufazhandeguidao……gaigekaifang40nian,womenshizhongjianchidangduijiaoyugongzuodelingdao,laoguquelibingjiandingbuyidibajiaoyufangzaiyouxianfazhanzhanlvediwei,zouchuleyitiaozhongguoteseshehuizhuyijiaoyufazhandaolu。40nianlai,zhongguojiaoyuqudelelishixingchengjiu、fashenglelishixingbiange,13yiduozhongguorenmindesixiangdaodesuzhihekexuewenhuasuzhiquanmiantisheng,jiaoyuzongtifazhanshuipingyuejushijiezhongshangxinglie,chengweiquanshijieguimozuida、fazhansuduzuikuai、fazhanqianlizuida、tesezuiweixianmingdejiaoyu。

  40niandefazhanshikuayuexingde。1978nian,woguoxiaoxueshengruchuzhongbilizhiyou60.5%,gaoxiaozaixiaosheng85.6wanren,yanjiusheng1wanren。zaijiweiboruodedizishang,jingguo40niannuli,muqianwoguogejigeleixuexiao51.4wansuo,zaixiaosheng2.7yiren,jiaoyuguimoweijushijieshouwei。xueqianjiaoyusannianmaoruyuanlvcong10.6%tishengdao79.6%,xiaoxuexuelingertongjingruxuelvcong94%tishengdao99.9%,chuzhongjieduanmaoruxuelvcong66.4%tishengdao103.5%,gaozhongjieduanmaoruxuelvcong33.6%tishengdao88.3%,gaodengjiaoyumaoruxuelvcong2.7%tishengdao45.7%,jundadaohuochaoguozhonggaoshouruguojiapingjunshuiping。woguoyongduanduan20duonianshijianzouguolexifangguojiajinbainiandeyiwujiaoyupujizhilu,suduchaoguoyixiefadaguojia。

瑞丰app下载   40niandechengjiushiquanfangweide。congyingjiandaoruanjian、congneirongdaofangfa、congchuantongguanlidaoxiandaizhilideng,jiaoyugezhongyaosushuipingyuelaiyuegao。1995nianjiaoyufaguidingjiaoyujingfeitouru“sangezengzhang”,2012nianshixian4%mubiaobingbaochilianxuzengzhang,2017nianguojiacaizhengxingjiaoyujingfeizhichuda3.4wanyiyuan。1978nian,quanguogejigeleixuexiaozhuanrenjiaoshi899wanren,2017nianzengjiadao1623wanren,shi1978niande1.8bei,yizhigaosuzhizhuanyehuadejiaoshiduiwuchujuguimo。muqian,woguoyixingchengyi8bujiaoyufalvweitongling、baokuo16bujiaoyufaguiheyipibumenguizhang、difangjiaoyufaguiguizhangzaineidebijiaowanbeidejiaoyufalvtixi,weijiaoyufazhantigonglefazhibaozhang。

瑞丰app下载   40niandeyingxiangshishijiexingde。2009nian,shanghaizhongxiaoxueshengshoucicanjiaoecdzuzhideguojixueshengnengliceshi(pisa)qudeyouyichengji,woguojiaoyuyinqiquanshijieguanzhu。40nianlai,jiaoyuduiwaikaifangchengxianchuguoliuxueyuxuechengguiguotongbukuoda、laihualiuxueyugongduxueweitongbuzengzhang、“yinjinlai”yu“zouchuqu”tongbutigaodejumian。laihualiuxueguimocong1978niande1200yurenzengjiadao2017niande48wanyuren,woguochengweiyazhouzuidadeliuxuemudediguo。zhongwaihezuobanxuejigouhexiangmuda2385ge,yu180duogeguojiahediqujianlilejiaoyuhezuoguanxi,jianlile8gegaojibierenwenjiaoliujizhi。533suokongzixueyuanhe1140gezhongxiaoxuekongziketangbianbuquanqiu150geguojiahediqu,haiwaixuexishiyonghanyurenshuda1yiren。

瑞丰app下载   gaigekaifang40nian,zhongguojiaoyufashenglishixingbiange。zhongguojiaoyude40nian,shibuduangaigede40nian,buduanchuangxinde40nian,biangeguanchuanshizhong。40nianlai,dangzhongyangxianhou5cizhaokaiquanguoxingjiaoyuhuiyi,mouhuagaige、bushugaige、tuidongbiange。

  40nianlai,banxuetizhigengquduoyuan,yizhengfubanxueweizhuti、quanshehuijijicanyu、gongbanheminbangongtongfazhandegejujibenxingcheng。cong1993nian“jijiguli、dalizhichi、zhengqueyindao、jiaqiangguanli”shiliuzifangzhen,dao2002nianminbanjiaoyucujinfazhengshiquedingminbanxuexiaoyugongbanxuexiaotongdengfalvdiwei,zaidao2016nianxinxiudingdeminbanjiaoyucujinfamingquefeiyinglixingheyinglixingfenleiguanli,minbanjiaoyucongwudaoyou、congxiaodaoda、cong“youyibuchong”chengzhangweizhongyaoliliang。muqian,quanguogongyouminbanxuexiao17wanyusuo,zaixiaosheng5100duowanren。

  40nianlai,guanlitizhigengjuhuoli,zhongyanghedifang、zhengfuhexuexiaozhijianjiaoyuzhizequanxianzhubuliqing。yiwujiaoyucongzuichude“renminjiaoyurenminban”zhujianzouxiang“renminjiaoyuzhengfuban”,chengweizhengfujibengonggongfuwu。1998nianbushugaoxiaodiaozhengchebingkaiqilexinzhongguolishishangguimozuidadegaodengjiaoyuhongguanguanlitizhigaige,shixianlecong“tiaokuaifenge”dao“sanjibanxue、liangjiguanli、yishengweizhu”biange。chixugaijinzhiyejiaoyuguanlifangshi,fenjiguanli、difangweizhu、zhengfutongchou、shehuicanyudeguanlitizhibuduanwanshan。

瑞丰app下载   40nianlai,kaoshizhaoshengzhidugengjiakexue,huiguijiaoyuguilv,youzhongzhishizhuanxiangzhongnengli、you“yikaodingzhongshen”zouxiangfenleikaoshi、zonghepingjia、duoyuanluqu。cong1989nianbiaozhunhuakaoshidao1999nian“3+x”gaige,cong1984nianshixingbaosongshengzhidudao2003nianzizhuzhaoshenggaige,kaoshineirongyuzhaoshengfangshibuduanwanshan。1998nian,woguogaodengjiaoyumaoruxuelvjinwei9.8%,“qianjunwanmaguodumuqiao”。1999nian,zhongyangzuochugaoxiaokuozhaodejuece,dangnianquanguogaoxiaozhaosheng159.68wanren,bishangnianzengzhang47.4%。2014nian,qidongzihuifugaokaoyilaizuixitong、zuiquanmiandeyicikaoshizhaoshengzhidugaige,2017nianshanghai、zhejiangchenggongshixingxingaokao。

瑞丰app下载   gaigekaifang40nian,zhongguojiaoyuchengxianlishixingbianhua。laolaojianchiweirenminfuwu、weizhongguogongchandangzhiguolizhengfuwu、weigongguhefazhanzhongguoteseshehuizhuyizhidufuwu、weigaigekaifangheshehuizhuyixiandaihuajianshefuwu,nulishiyingdangheguojiashiyefazhanyaoqiu,buduanmanzurenminqunzhongqidai,youxiaozhichengwoguozongheguoliheguojidiweibuduantisheng。

瑞丰app下载   40nianlai,jiaoyutixibuduanwanshan,shoujiaoyuqudaodafutuokuan。zongxiangshang,xueqian、chudeng、zhongdeng、gaodenggecengcijiaoyuxianghuxianjie;hengxiangshang,putongjiaoyuyuzhiyejiaoyu、gongbanjiaoyuyuminbanjiaoyu、chuguoliuxueyulaihualiuxue、xuelijiaoyuyufeixuelijiaoyutongbufazhan。muqian,quanguoyouzhiyeyuanxiao1.2wansuo,zaixiaosheng2680wanren,zhongzhihegaozhifenbiezhangaozhongjieduanhegaodengjiaoyudebanbijiangshan。jianlilezikao、hanshou、chengrenyeda、chengrengaokao、guangbodianshidaxue、kaifangdaxue、mukedengduozhongjiaoyuqudao,renrenxuexi、shishikexue、chuchukexuedexuexixingshehuijiakuaijianli。

  40nianlai,jiaoyugongpingdebufabuduanjiakuai,meigerenshoujiaoyuquanlidedaogenghaogengyoulidebaozhang。2008nianqiujixueqiqi,woguoshixianchengxiangyiwujiaoyuquanbumianchuxuezafei,zheishiwoguojiaoyufazhanshishangdeyigezhongyaolichengbei。qingxiezhichinongcunjiaoyu、zhongxibudiqujiaoyu,shishinongcunjisuzhixuexiaojianshegongcheng、quanmiangaibo、jiaoyutuopingongjiandengzhongdagongchengxiangmu,quanguochaoguo80%dexianshixianyiwujiaoyujibenjunhengfazhan,gengduonongcunhezhongxibudiquhaizixiangshoudaogenghaogenggongpingdejiaoyu。nongcunyiwujiaoyuxueshengyingyanggaishanjihuameinianhuiji3700duowanren。jianlifugaicongxueqiandaoyanjiushengjiaoyudequanxueduanxueshengzizhuzhengcetixi,burangyigehaiziyinjiatingjingjikunnanerchuoxuedemubiaojibenshixian。80%yishangjinchengwugongrenyuansuiqianzinvzaigongbanxuexiaojiudu,liushouertongguanaifuwutixibuduanjianquan。shili、tingli、zhilisanleicanjiertongyiwujiaoyuruxuelvda90%yishang。

瑞丰app下载   40nianlai,rencaipeiyanghekejigongjishuipingzhubutigao,fuwujingjishehuifazhannenglibuduanzengqiang。gaigekaifangyilai,gaodengjiaoyuleijiweiguojiapeiyangheshusongle9900wanminggaosuzhizhuanmenrencai,zhiyexuexiaoleijipeiyangheshusongle2yiduomingjishujinengrencai。woguogaoxiaonianbiyeshengrenshucong16.5wanzengzhangdao820wan,40nianjianzengjialejin50bei。muqian,woguolaodongnianlingrenkoupingjunshoujiaoyunianxian10.5nian,xinzenglaodonglizhongjieshouguogaodengjiaoyudebilichaoguo45%,pingjunshoujiaoyunianxiandadao13.5nian,gaoyushijiepingjunshuiping。guojiaxianhoushishi“211gongcheng”“985gongcheng”“2011jihua”“‘shuangyiliu’jianshe”dengzhongdaxiangmu,woguogaoxiaozaiquanqiudeweicizhengtidafuqianyi,jinrushijiepaimingqianlieshuliangxianzhuzengjia,jin100gexuekejinrushijieqianqianfenzhiyi。gaoxiaochengdanlequanguo60%yishangdejichuyanjiuhezhongdakeyanrenwu,jianshele60%yishangdeguojiazhongdianshiyanshi,huodele60%yishangdeguojiakejisandajiangli,fabiaokejilunwenshulianghehuodezirankexuejijinzizhuxiangmujunzhanquanguo80%yishang,gaoxiaozhexueshehuikexueduiwuheyanjiuchengguojunzhanquanguozongshu80%yishang,zaizairenhangtian、liangzitongxin、chaojijisuanjidenglingyuchanchuyipijuyouguojiyingxianglidebiaozhixingchengguo,youlituidonglechuangxinxingguojiajianshe。

瑞丰app下载   gaigekaifang40nian,zhongguojiaoyumairulishixinzhengcheng。jinnian9yue10ri,dangzhongyangzhaokaiquanguojiaoyudahui,yixijinpingxinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyisixiangweizhiyin,mouhuajiaoyugaigefazhandehongweilantu,kaiqilejiakuaituijinjiaoyuxiandaihua、jianshejiaoyuqiangguo、banhaorenminmanyidejiaoyuxinzhengcheng。

  yaoshenkelijiehebawoxijinpingzongshujiguanyujiaoyudezhongyaolunshu,qieshizuodao“jiugejianchi”,quanmianluoshijiaoyuyouxianfazhanzhanlve。yaobalideshurenzuoweijiaoyudegenbenrenwu,zaijiandinglixiangxinnian、houzhiaiguozhuyiqinghuai、jiaqiangpindexiuyang、zengzhangzhishijianshi、peiyangfendoujingshen、zengqiangzonghesuzhidengliugefangmianxiagongfu,peiyangdezhitimeilaoquanmianfazhandeshehuizhuyijianshezhehejiebanren。yaojiaqiangjiaoshiduiwujianshe,buduantigaojiaoshidaiyu,rangguangdajiaoshianxincongjiao、rexincongjiao。yaojianjuepochuzhiyuejiaoyushiyefazhandetizhijizhizhangai,jianjuekefuweifenshu、weishengxue、weiwenping、weilunwen、weimaozidewanzhangguji,chongfenjifajiaoyushiyefazhanshengjihuoli。yaojiaqiangdangduijiaoyugongzuodequanmianlingdao,bajiaqiangzhengzhijianshebaizaishouwei,buduanzengqiang“sigeyishi”,zijuejianding“sigezixin”,jianjuezuodao“lianggeweihu”,shizhongzaisixiangshangzhengzhishangxingdongshangtongyixijinpingtongzhiweihexindedangzhongyangbaochigaoduyizhi。shenrutuijinjiaoyuxitongquanmiancongyanzhidanghefanfubaidouzheng,yingzaofengqingqizhengdelianghaozhengzhishengtai。

  40nianjiankufendou,buwangchuxin;40nianbilulanlv,shuoguoleilei。jintiandezhongguojiaoyuyijingzhanzaixindelishiqidianshang。womenyaojinmituanjiezaiyixijinpingtongzhiweihexindedangzhongyangzhouwei,jianchiyixijinpingxinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyisixiangweizhidao,shenhuajiaoyugaigekaifang,jiakuaituijinjiaoyuxiandaihua、jianshejiaoyuqiangguo、banhaorenminmanyidejiaoyu,weijueshengquanmianjianchengxiaokangshehui、shixianzhonghuaminzuweidafuxingdezhongguomengzuochuxindegengdagongxian。(benwenkanfayu《renminribao》2018nian12yue17ri11ban)


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